عنوان مقاله [English]
Micro irrigation system is widely used to improve water use efficiency and water supply in most crop, especially vegetable and fruit crops. The micro irrigation system offers the highest irrigation uniformity compared with other irrigation systems. This irrigation systems can deliver water and nutrients in precise amounts and at controlled frequencies directly to the plant’s root zone. The major cause of failure in micro-irrigation systems is emitter plugging. Emitter plugging can severely degrade irrigation system performance and application uniformity. Because the emitters are small and can easily plug, it is important to understand the filtration and maintenance requirements of these systems and be proactive to prevent plugging. Plugging hazards for micro-irrigation systems fall into three general categories: physical (sediment), biological or organic (bacteria and algae), and chemical (scale). Frequently, plugging is caused by a combination of these factors. The type of emitter plugging problems will vary with the source of the irrigation water. It is important to prevent plugging problems before they occur. The best prevention plan includes an effective filtration, water treatment, and maintenance strategy. A water analysis is vital to the proper design and operation of the micro-irrigation system. To assess irrigation system performance and to ensure that components like filters are working correctly, flow meters and pressure gauges must be properly installed to provide feedback to the system operator. Monitoring flow meters and pressure gauges over time can reveal system performance anomalies that may require attention. To prevent the accumulation of those contaminants and the resulting emitter plugging, flush the system periodically. Regular flushing is critical to system health and longevity. If the micro-irrigation system is equipped with a method for chemically treating the water source (most will be), backflow protection, and other safety provisions, are necessary.