عنوان مقاله [English]
The decline in water resources, the gradual shift of the share of water consumption in agriculture to other sectors, and the replacement of crops with higher value than strategic plants, lead to food insecurity. Inadequate water productivity and increased per capita water have resulted in the drying up of rivers, lakes and groundwater levels over time. Although groundwater extraction may be effective in producing food in the short term, it will not be sustainable in the long run. In many countries, agricultural practice in irrigated areas has become uneconomic due to the decline in groundwater level. One of the past approaches to increasing production was to increase the area under irrigated land. In the past, this was accomplished only by supplying water from groundwater sources or by controlling surface water. But it is clear that in arid and semi-arid regions such as Iran where water is scarce, this strategy, without considering proper utilization methods, will be faced new challenges such as lower water quality and soil degradation, desertification and unstable production. One of the most important strategies in addressing poverty and hunger is to make more efficient use of available water. Different solutions may be suggested to achieve this, but two major solutions must be considered in general. Increasing production by conserving existing water resources (crop management) and maintaining existing production but with less water consumption (irrigation management) are two important options to improve water productivity. One of the most effective ways to use water more efficiently is to apply pressure irrigation methods. The country's executive planners are working to increase the area of pressurized irrigation lands with the goal of making water more efficient. Due to the climatic conditions and scarcity of water resources in Iran, the development of new pressurized irrigation systems as one of the effective solutions to mitigate the critical water conditions in different parts of the country is on the serious agenda of the agricultural authorities. But surveys show that despite the development of programs and government support for the development of these methods and the paying high budgets, unfortunately the effectiveness of the systems have not been well developed. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate and identify the causes of underdevelopment as well as the growing obstacles to provide continued solutions for developing pressurized irrigation practices in the country.