کاربرد سیستم آبیاری قطره ای زیرسطحی و پارامترهای مدیریت آن در زراعت ذرت

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهشی مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان

3 استاد دانشکده محیط‌زیست، البرز، کرج، ایران

چکیده

روش آبیاری قطره­ای زیر­سطحی یک روش بسیار کارآمد برای استفاده بهینه از آب با به حداقل رسانیدن تلفات آب از طریق تبخیر از سطح خاک، کاهش نفوذ عمقی و درنتیجه کمک به حفظ ذخیره آب و حفظ مواد مغذی مورداستفاده گیاه است. این روش آبیاری در نقاط مختلفی از جهان بر روی محصولات مختلف ردیفی (ازجمله ذرت)، باغی و سبزیجات ارجحیت نسبتاً بالایی نسبت به سایر روش­های آبیاری قطره­ای سطحی، بارانی و سطحی به خود اختصاص داده است. همچنین در محصولات پر­مصرف در کشور ایران مثل ذرت که از سطح زیر کشت بالایی نیز برخوردار است و می­تواند نقش مؤثری در بیلان آب کشور داشته باشد دارای بازده قابل­قبولی بوده است. در این مقاله هدف معرفی مزایا و محدودیت­های روش آبیاری قطره­ای زیر­سطحی برای زراعت ذرت و ارائه توصیه­های فنی برای طراحی، اجرا و بهره­برداری از این سیستم در زراعت ذرت می­باشد. به این منظور مطالعاتی بر روی نتایج تحقیقات انجام‌شده در خصوص عملکرد گیاه ذرت و بهره­وری آب تحت سیستم آبیاری قطره­ای زیر­سطحی انجام شد. نتایج ارائه‌شده از مطالعات صورت گرفته نشان داد با توجه به بافت خاک ک عمق لوله­های قطره­چکان­دار در محدوده عمق 0.15 تا 0.45 متر متغیر بود. همچنین فاصله لوله ­های قطره­چکان­دار برابر 1/5 متر برای ذرت کشت‌شده بافاصله ردیف­های 76/0 متر مقرون‌به‌صرفه بود. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد دانه ذرت، بیوماس گیاه و جذب کود نیتروژن گیاه با استفاده از کود­آبیاری در طول فصل رشد تحت سیستم آبیاری قطره­ای زیر­سطحی دارای افزایش بیشتری بود. به‌طورکلی زمانی که با شرایط کمبود آب و تنش آبی محصول مواجه هستیم، کاربرد سیستم آبیاری قطره­ای زیر­سطحی می­تواند با طراحی و مدیریت صحیح باعث افزایش سطح تولید، افزایش عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه ذرت و همچنین بالا بردن بهره­وری آب آبیاری ­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Subsurface Drip Irrigation System and Management Parameters in Corn Production

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein dehghansanij 1
  • Elahe Kanani 2
  • Majid Hamami 3
1 Associate Researcher, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
2 Master of Science, Department of Water Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Environment, Alborz, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Subsurface drip irrigation is a highly efficient method to optimal use of water by minimizing water losses through evaporation from the soil surface, reduce deep percolation, and thus helping to keep water and preserve the nutrients used by crops. This irrigation method have high priority in different parts of the world on different row crops, garden and vegetables compared to other methods irrigation such as of surface drip irrigation, sprinkler and surface irrigation. In Iran, for the crops with cultivated area, such as corn, were been very productive which may have an important role in the water balance of country's. In this article, the goal is introduction of benefits and limitations of subsurface drip irrigation for corn and provide technical advice for design, implementation and operation of this system in corn farming. For this purpose reports and publications on the yield and water productivity of corn under subsurface drip irrigation system were studied. The results showed that depth of dripline due to the soil texture was variable, and was in range from 0.15 to 0.45 meters. Also, the distance between the dripline was affordable with 1.5 meters for cultivated corn with a row spacing of 0.76 m. Also, the results showed that grain yield of corn, plant biomass and absorb plant nitrogen fertilizer by fertigation during the growing season has increased under the subsurface drip irrigation system. Generally, when we are faced with water shortage and water tension of the product, application of subsurface drip irrigation with a proper design and management will increase corn production levels, yield and yield components and, also increase the irrigation water productivity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corn
  • Irrigation management
  • subsurface drip irrigation
  • Water productivity
  • Yield
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